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Sales charge - A fee charged for the sale of certain fund shares, typically by brokers or other sales professionals. A mutual fund sales charge is limited by law to 8.5 percent of the cost of an investment. Depending on the selected fund and the amount invested, the fee may change. A sales charge is generally included in the asking or offered price charged by the broker.




Scalability
- Scalability is the capacity of a system, such a computer network, or an organization to function effectively under an expanding or increased workload. A well-scaled system will be able to maintain or improve its level of performance even when it is put to the test by increasing operational demands. In the business sector, a scalable company is one that can maintain or enhance its profit margins as sales volume rises. Scalability in financial markets refers to an institution's capacity to meet rising market needs.



Scalping
- Scalping is a trading strategy designed to trade and make money off of small movements in the price of a specific company stock. Traders that use this approach are called scalpers. Scalpers execute anything between five and tens of trades in a single day in the assumption that minor changes in stock price can produce larger combined profits rather than just a larger ones. If a tight exit strategy is adopted to prevent large losses, many little profits can readily compound into large gains at the end of day.



Secondary market
- The secondary market is the financial market where previously issued financial instruments including stock, bonds, options, and futures are bought and sold. The term secondary market refers to the market generated by the subsequent trading of such securities, in contrast to primary market, which refers to the market for fresh issues of securities. Initial public offerings (IPOs) are an example of primary markets. The primary market is the initial sale of the security by the issuer to a buyer who then pays the issuer the proceeds. The secondary market is where all transactions that take place following the security's initial sale. In secondary market, also known as aftermarket, the underwriter resells the securities to additional bidders. The secondary market is where holders of securities can buy and sell them. The secondary market is what most people refer to as the stock market. The Nasdaq and the New York Stock Exchange are examples of U.S. secondary markets.



Sector
- A group of comparable securities, such as stocks in a particular sector or specific industry. A sector is a segment of the economy where companies engage in similar or related commercial activities, produce, or services . Economists can assess the financial activities within various sectors of an economy by dividing it into those sectors. As a result, sector analysis shows whether an economy is growing overall or if some sectors are facing economic downturn. The 11 sectors in the U.S economy, listed in order of size, are Information Technology, Health Care, Financials, Consumer Discretionary, Communication Services, Industrials, Consumer Staples, Energy, Utilities, Real Estate, and Materials.



Sector analysis
- A sector analysis evaluates the state of the economy, including its financial and economic standing, as well as its future prospects. An investor can make a forecast regarding the performance of the sector's companies using sector analysis. Sector analysis is often used by investors who specialize in a specific industry or who utilize a top-down or sector rotation approach to investing.



Sector breakdown
- Securities in a portfolio subdivided into industry groups.



Securities
- A financial instrument, like bonds and stocks, that is fungible and negotiable and has some sort of monetary worth. The term securities refers to the legal records that attest to an investor's ownership of specific stocks or bonds. A security can reflect rights to ownership as an option, a creditor relationship with a government agency or corporation as stock, or ownership of that entity's bond.



Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
- An independent federal government regulatory body in charge of safeguarding investors, ensuring the fair and orderly operation of the securities markets, and promoting capital formation. The agency was established by the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934 that is in charge of enforcing the legislation regulating the securities market, including the registration and distribution of mutual fund shares. The SEC encourages complete public disclosure, defends investors from dishonest and market-manipulating techniques, and keeps an eye on corporate takeover activities in the country. Additionally, it approves registration documents among underwriting companies. To conduct business, financial services organizations like broker-dealers, advisory firms, and asset managers are required to register with the SEC. 




Service sector
- The U.S. Census Bureau states that the service sector consists of a variety of service industries, including warehousing and transportation services, information services, securities and other investment services, professional services, waste management, health care and social assistance, and arts, entertainment, and recreation. Economies that are primarily based on the service sector are regarded as being more advanced than industrial or agricultural economies.



Shadow
- A candlestick shadow, or wick, which may be seen on a candlestick chart, is a vertical line that appear above and/or below the body of the candlestick. These shadows essentially represent the highest (upper shadow) and lowest (lower shadow) prices at which a securities has traded over a certain period of time. 

The candlestick's shadow can be compared to its wide part, which is referred to as the body of the candle. The longer is the shadow, the stronger is the reversal following that price action, once price breaks out of the consolidation period, either to the upside or downside depending on market conditions for that specific security.



Share
- A share of a stock or a mutual fund is a unit of ownership in an investment. Shares are a type of financial asset that some businesses use to guarantee an equitable dividend distribution of any declared residual profits. A stock with no dividend payments does not distribute its income to its shareholders. Instead, shareholders look forward to a rise in the stock price as business profits increase. There are two primary kinds of shares: common shares and preferred shares. The terms shares and stock are frequently used interchangeably.




Share class net assets (date)
-Assets of the fund that are part of a particular share class.




Share classes
- Classes indicate ownership in the same fund but levies various fees. As a result, shareholders may be free to select the fee structure that best matches their individual requirements.




Share repurchase
- A corporation can buy its own shares back from the market in a share repurchase. When management believes that a company's shares are undervalued, it may decide to purchase them back. The business either purchases shares directly off the market or gives its stockholders the choice to sell their shares to the business at a predetermined price. This procedure, also referred to as a share repurchase, lowers the number of outstanding shares. Investors frequently believe that buybacks will enhance the share price since they reduce the supply of shares. This presupposes that the measure won't reduce interest in the shares. In addition, a company repurchasing its own shares indicates a conviction in the stability and continued growth of its own business.



Shareholder activist
- A shareholder activist is someone who works to influence change inside or for a publicly traded company by using their shareholder rights.



Sharpe Ratio
- A risk-adjusted metric that assesses reward in relation to risk. Then metric is considered positive when the sharpe ratio is high.



Shareholder
- Any individual, business, or organization that holds at least one share of a company's stock or unit in a mutual fund is referred to as a shareholder. The firm is primarily owned by its shareholders, who have specific rights and obligations and will also benefit from the company's success. These benefits take the form of rising stock prices or cash gains paid out as dividends. In contrast, when a corporation experiences a loss, the share price invariably falls, which may result in financial losses for shareholders or declines in their portfolios.



Shooting star
- A shooting star is a bearish candlestick that has a small body, a long upper shadow, and little or no lower shadow. The shooting star is basically an inverted hammer (or a gravestone doji) that appears at the top of an uptrend. The formation of this pattern is the result of zealous buying. Prior to the shooting star formation, price is basically in a momentum run pushed upward by bullish energy. On the day of the shooting star formation, price rises significantly higher, fueled by exuberant buying and reaching overbought conditions. At that point price starts to pullback and closes the day near or below the opening price. Generally that marks the end of the uptrend and the beginning of a correction or downtrend.



Short (short position)
- When an investor believes that the value of a stock will decline in the near future, perhaps over the course of a few days or weeks, they adopt a strategy called a short position or short selling. When engaging in short selling, more commonly than not, investors do not own the shares that they are selling. Instead, they borrows those stock shares from their brokerage house and sell to another investor in the open market. A short seller will benefit from their short position as long as the price of that security will continue to move lower. When they are ready to close their short position, they repurchase those shares. This action is called buy-to-cover. Basically they buy back the same number of shares they were originally selling, giving back to their broker the shares they borrowed and closing their short position. As complicated as it might sound, this is a simple and automated process that takes place as so soon as the trader presses the "buy-to-cover" button on their trading platform. Short positions are classified as either naked or covered. A covered short is a short selling position initiated while owning shares of the stock that has been sold. When a trader sells a security while not actually owning it, this is known as a naked short. In this instance, the trader is using borrowed shares.



Short covering
- In order to close off an open short position at a profit or loss, a practice known as Short covering entails purchasing back borrowed securities. The same security that was first sold short must be bought, and the shares that were borrowed for the short sale must be returned. Buy to cover transactions fall under this category.



Short interest
- The quantity of shares that have been sold short and are still on the market is known as the short interest. If they believe the price will fall, traders would often borrow shares of stock and short sell an asset. Afterward, the investor sells these borrowed shares to buyers who are prepared to pay the going rate. Short interest frequently serves as a gauge of market sentiment. When short interest rises, it frequently indicates that investors have become more negative, while a decline in short interest indicates the opposite.



Short interest ratio
- Short interest ratio, known also as days to cover, is a metric used to evaluate the levels of bearish pressure affecting a stock. The greater the value, the heavier is the pressure. In order to calculate the short interest ratio, the average daily trading volume of the stock is divided by the number of shares that are shorted. Simply defined, by comparing a stock's short interest to its average daily trading volume, the ratio can instantly inform an investor if a stock is highly shorted or not. At some point stocks that are heavily shorted will start attracting buyers. If the buying pressure keeps growing, it will trigger what's called a short squeeze, a situation where short sellers are trying to get out of their short position as quickly as possible. A short squeeze will generally create a bullish wave that will lift the price significantly.



Short selling
- Short selling is an investing or trading strategy that bets on the price drop of a stock or other security. Only seasoned traders and investors should use this advanced strategy.



Short squeeze
- A short squeeze is an unusual condition that triggers rapidly rising prices in a stock or other tradable security. For a short squeeze to occur, the security must have an unusual degree of short sellers holding positions in it. The short squeeze begins when the price jumps higher unexpectedly. The condition plays out as a significant measure of the short sellers coincidentally decide to cut losses and exit their positions.



Short-term investment
- Asset purchased with an investment life of less than a year.




Simple moving average (SMA)
- A simple moving average (SMA), also know as simple-day moving average or simply "moving average", is a technical indicator that determines the average of a chosen range of prices, typically the closing prices, by the quantity of periods in that range. For example, the 50 SMA adds up the closing prices of the past 50 days and divides the sum by 50 (days) to make an arithmetical average. From that calculation, the SMA indicator displays a line in the chart that can be used as a support level if price is above it or a resistance level is price is below it. Generally, more that one moving average is used, in order to have a more complete picture analysis of price action during short-, intermediate- and long-term periods. Other moving averages exist, such as the weighted moving average (WMA) and the exponential moving average (EMA).




Small-cap
- The stock market capitalization of companies with less than $3 billion in market capitalization.



Social bonds - a type of bond where revenues will only be used to finance, refinance, or otherwise make payments on new, existing, or otherwise qualifying social projects.




Smart money
- The capital that is under the management of well-informed institutional investors, market experts, central banks, funds, and other financial institutions that are in-the-know. Smart money also refers to the combined power of large sums of money that has the ability to influence markets. For example, the central bank is the driving force behind smart money in this situation, and individual traders are riding on its back.



Speculation
- Speculation, often known as speculative trading, is the act of engaging in a financial transaction that carries a considerable risk of losing value but also carries the possibility of a sizable gain or other significant value. The risk of loss in speculating is more than compensated by the chance of making large gains.



Spread
- In finance, a spread can mean different things. The spread is typically used to describe the distinction between two prices, rates, or yields. The spread is typically defined as the difference between the ask and bid prices of a security or asset, such as a stock, bond, or commodity. This is referred to as a bid-ask spread.



Standard & Poor's (S&P)
- The corporation Standard & Poor's (S&P) is well recognized around the world for producing financial market indexes that are frequently used as investment benchmarks, serving as a data source, and issuing credit ratings for companies and debt obligations. It is most well-known for the well-liked and frequently mentioned S&P 500 Index. 



Standard & Poor's 500 Index
- The Standard & Poor's 500 index, also referred as the S&P 500 or S&P 500 index, is a widely used index that measures changes in the state of the stock market. The S&P 500 index measures the performance of 500 of the largest publicly traded corporations in the United States. Because the index also takes into account other factors, it is not a precise list of the top 500 U.S. corporations by market cap. Nonetheless, the S&P 500 index is recognized as one of the finest indicators of the performance of significant American equities, and thus of the stock market as a whole.



Standard Deviation (SD)
- A metric used in statistics to express how much a given value tends to deviate from the distribution's mean. The square root of the variance is used to calculate the standard deviation, a statistic that expresses how widely distributed a dataset is in relation to its mean. By calculating each data point's divergence from the mean, the standard deviation may be determined as the square root of variance. In simpler terms, a standard deviation is a measurement of how distant the data is from the mean. A low standard deviation suggests that data are concentrated around the mean, whereas a large standard deviation shows that data are more dispersed.



Startup
- Startup refers to a business that is just getting started. Startups are created by one or more business owners who desire to provide a good or service they feel there is a market for. These businesses typically have large startup expenses and little income, which is why they seek funding from a number of sources, including venture capitalists.



Statement of additional information (SAI)
- The addendum to a prospectus, commonly known as "Part B" of the prospectus, that includes additional information about a mutual fund.




Stochastic oscillator
- A momentum indicator that evaluates a security's closing price in relation to a range of its prices over a specific time period. By changing that time period or using a moving average, the oscillator's sensitivity to market fluctuations can be reduced. It uses a 0-100 limited range of values to provide overbought (above 70-80) and oversold (below 20-30) trading signals.



Stochastic RSI (StochRSI)
- A technical analysis indicator that uses relative strength index (RSI) readings instead of traditional price data to calculate a number between zero and one (or zero and 100 on some charting platforms). Traders can determine if the current RSI value is overbought or oversold by incorporating RSI values into the Stochastic calculation.



Stock
- Also known as equity, the term stock refers to a long-term, growth-oriented investment that represents ownership in a corporation.




Stockholder
- The holder of a corporation's common or preferred stock. Also known as a shareholder.




Stock option
- Stock options are a type of equity derivative, also referred to as equity options. An option is a financial product that is considered a derivative, which means that the value of the underlying asset or security determines or is derived from the value of the option. In the case of stock options, the company's shares (or an index of stocks) serve as their underlying asset. An investor who purchases a stock option has the right, but not the responsibility, to buy or sell the shares at a predetermined price and time. Options come in two flavors: puts, which bet on the stock falling, and calls, which bet on the price rising. 



Stock screener
- A set of tools that enables investors to easily sort through the thousands of companies and growing number of exchange-traded funds (ETFs) available in the stock market, using investors' chosen criteria. Most brokerage trading platforms offer free stock screeners. However, for those investors looking for platforms that provide more in-depth scanning features, several independent subscription-based stock screeners are also available. Stock screening tools let individuals use their own criteria for finding stocks or ETFs that can be attractive for long-term investors, or identify prospective opportunities for shorter-term traders.



Stock ticker
- A stock symbol, also called ticker symbol, is a particular set of letters assigned to a security for trading reasons. Stocks that are listed on the NYSE are limited to four letters or less. Securities that are listed on Nasdaq typically have four characters, but may have up to five letters. The fifth letter of a five-letter symbol contains company information. The fifth letter can sometimes be used to identify the type of stock or security: A or B stand for NASDAQ stocks' A and B class shares, respectively, while V or Y denote shares represented by American Depository Receipts (ADRs). There is no discernible difference between symbols with two letters, and those with three, four or even five letters because they are simply a shortcut for describing a company's stock.



Stop-limit order
- A stop-limit order is a conditional trade that combines the qualities of a stop order with those of a limit order and is used to manage risk. A stop-limit order is connected to other order types such as limit orders (an order to buy or sell a specific number of shares at a specified price or better) and stop-on-quote orders (stop order that will be triggered only when a valid quoted price in the market is met).



Stop-loss order
- A stop-loss order is a type of order that traders use to cap their losses or lock in a profit on an existing position. By using stop-loss orders, traders can limit the amount of risk they are exposed to. Stop-loss orders are instructions to exit a trade by purchasing or selling a security at market value when it hits the stop price. Bear in mind that stop-loss orders only get triggered during regular market hours. If price drops below a certain level during extended market hours (premarket or post market) the stop will not get triggered. In other words, stop loss orders do not remove the risks associated with holding positions overnight.



Stop-on-quote orders
- A stop order that will be triggered only when a valid quoted price in the market is met



Stop order
- A stop order is an order to buy or sell a security when its price moves past a particular point, ensuring a higher probability of achieving a predetermined entry or exit price, limiting the investor's loss, or locking in a profit. Once the price crosses the predefined entry or exit point, the stop order becomes a market order.



Straddle
- A straddle is a neutral options strategy that entails purchasing a put option and a call option with the same strike price and expiration date for the underlying investment. A trader will profit from a long straddle when the price of the asset rises or falls by more than the total cost of the premium paid from the strike price. As long as the price of the underlying asset fluctuates drastically, the profit potential is practically limitless. In contrast to a strangle, which employs a call and put with separate strike prices, a straddle uses options with the same strike price.



Strangle
- A strangle is an options strategy in which the investor owns positions in both a call and a put option with different strike prices, but the same expiration date and underlying asset. If an investor believes the underlying asset will have a large price move in the near future but is unsure of the direction, a strangle is a suitable technique to address this scenario. However, a strangle is profitable only when the asset's price does fluctuate significantly. In contrast to a straddle, which employs a call and put with the same strike price, a strangle uses options with separate strike prices.



Strike price
- A strike price, also known as exercise price, is the fixed price at which a derivative contract can be bought or sold when it is exercised. The strike price of a call option is the price at which the option holder can purchase the asset; the strike price of a put option is the price at which the security can be sold. 



Supply
- A basic economic concept that refers to the total amount of a particular commodity or service that is made available to consumers. If depicted on a graph, supply can refer to the amount available at a single price or the amount available throughout a range of prices. This is directly related to the demand for an item or service at a particular price; assuming that all factors are equal, the supply offered by manufacturers will increase, if the price rises, because all businesses aim to maximize profits. When markets become saturated and there's an excess of supply, or a decrease in demand, prices will start to drop. Supply and demand are the dominating forces of market economy.



Support
- Support, also known as a support level, is the level at which the price of an asset experiences stability as it drops, due to the appearance of an increasing number of buyers who are eager to buy at that price. Support levels may be long-lasting or short-lived depending on whether new information surfaces and alters the market's perception of the asset as a whole. Drawing an horizontal line (and at times diagonal lines, known as trend lines) to connect the lows for the time period being considered, allows technical analysts to chart the support levels, and make a more accurate price projection. The counterpart of support is resistance.



Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB)
- A non-profit organization with the purpose of developing accounting standards for sustainability.



Sustainability Bonds
- A bond instrument whose proceeds will only be used to fund or refinance projects that integrate social and environmental issues.




Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
- A United Nations (UN) initiative calls for all nations to ratify 17 goals that address issues such as poverty, inequality, climate change, environmental degradation, and peace and justice.




Sustainable investing
- An investment strategy that is focused on the future, seeking to produce long-term, sustainable financial return in a rapidly evolving global environment. It comprises a wide range of methodologies, the heart of which begins with the absorption of environmental, social and governance (ESG) data. 




Sustainability-Linked Bonds (SLB’s)
- Bond instrument whose financial and/or structural attributes can change based on whether the issuer meets predefined Sustainability/ Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) goals.




Swing trading
- Swing trading is a type of trading strategy that aims to generate gains in the short- to medium-term trading stocks, options, ETFs, or any other financial instrument, over a few days up to several weeks. Technical analysis is a main tool used by swing traders to find trading opportunities, design their trading plan, identify entry areas and plan their exit strategies. In addition to examining price trends and patterns, swing traders may also use fundamental analysis.



Systematic investment plan
- A service that allows investors to purchase mutual fund shares on a regular basis, typically by bank account deductions.

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