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Ultra ETF - A type of exchange-traded fund (ETF) that uses leverage to increase the return of a specific benchmark. Introduced in 2006, ultra ETFs have expanded to encompass a variety of ETFs with underlying benchmarks ranging from broad market indexes like the S&P 500, Nasdaq 100 and Russell 2000 to specific sectors (financial, technology, health care...), industries (semiconductors, biotech, oil and gas exploration and production...), geographical regions (Asia, Europe, Mexico...) and even short-sell holdings (inverse S&P 500, inverse Nasdaq 100, inverse Russel 2000...). Ultra ETFs are often referred to as leveraged ETFs or geared funds.



Undercapitalization -
When a corporation lacks the capital to carry out routine commercial activities and pay creditors. Undercapitalization happens may happen if the business is not producing adequate cash flow or if it is unable to obtain financing through debt or equity.



Underlying asset
- The financial assets on which the price of a derivative is based. Options are a type of derivative; derivatives are derivatives are financial products whose value is based on other assets. 



Underperform
- An investment that is not keeping up with other securities. In a bull market, for example, a stock is underperforming if its gains are less than or equal to those of the S&P 500 Index. In a bear market a stock is underperforming if it declines more quickly than the overall market. Underperform is also a type of analyst rating which is given when shares of a company are anticipated to perform marginally worse than the market return. The label is also referred to as weak hold or moderate sale in the market.



Underweight
- In terms of trade and finance, the term underweight describes one of two scenarios. When compared to the weight of that security in the underlying benchmark portfolio, an underweight portfolio does not hold a sufficient quantity of that security. In situations where a security is anticipated to perform poorly, the term underweight can also apply to an analyst's assessment of the asset's potential performance in the future.



Unemployment
- Unemployment is a state of affairs where a person actively seeks employment but is unsuccessful in doing so. Unemployment is seen as an important indicator of economic health. The unemployment rate is the most often used indicator of unemployment. It is determined by dividing the total number of employed people by the total number of unemployed people.



Unemployment rate
- The percentage of the labor force without a job. The unemployment rate is a lagging indicator, which means that rather than forecasting changes in economic conditions, it often rises or decreases in response to them. The unemployment rate is likely to increase when the economy is struggling and there are few open positions. On the other hand, it is predicted to decline when the economy is growing and there are plenty of employment available.



Unicorn
- A startup company with a valuation of over $1 billion. The term unicorn is extensively used in the venture capital industry. Venture capitalist Aileen Lee is credited with coining the term. Due to their rarity, unicorns need tremendous amount of creativity. Due to their enormous size, unicorn investors typically are private investors or venture capitalists, making them unavailable to retail investors. Although it is not required, many unicorns work their way up to being public companies.



United Nations-convened Net-Zero Asset Owner Alliance
- An international network of institutional investors delivering on a pledge to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from investment portfolios to zero by 2050.




United Nations Global Compact (UNGC)
- A global movement of sustainable businesses and organizations in the fields of human rights, labor, the environment, and anti-corruption, mobilized through a strategic policy and advocacy project.



United Nations
-An official network of investors that promotes sustainable investment by taking into account environmental, social and governance (ESG) aspects.




United States Treasury money mutual fund
- A mutual fund that combines client funds to buy low-risk government assets that invests largely or entirely in U.S. government debt, such as Treasury bills and repurchase agreements. For investors looking to protect their principle or temporarily invest cash, U.S. Treasury money mutual funds are a popular choice.



Universe of securities
- A group of securities that have something in common with each other. For example, for a U.S. investor, the broad universe of equities will comprise all listed companies (large, mid and small cap), as well as international corporations listed as American depositary receipts (ADRs). Other investors may employ a more narrow universe that is limited to only value stocks or those with a market cap above a certain minimal threshold.



Unlisted security - A financial instrument that does not meet the criteria for listing on a formal exchange. Unlisted securities are traded on the over-the-counter (OTC) market and are frequently referred to as OTC securities. On the OTC market, market makers, also known as dealers, help buyers and sellers exchange unlisted assets.



Unrealized gain
- An increase in the value of an asset that has yet to be sold for cash, such as a stock position, an option contract or a commodity. Once the position is sold for a profit, a gain is realized. If the asset's value falls below the price at which it was purchased, an unrealized gain may be erased, and will turn into an unrealized loss. When the equity is sold and the position is closed, only the it will result in a real loss.



Unrealized loss
- Unrealized losses are paper losses that happen when an investor hangs onto an asset whose value has dropped without selling it and recognizing the loss. In the event that an asset's price does eventually rise, an investor can choose to postpone realizing a loss in the hopes of at least breaking even or making a little profit. For tax purposes, a loss must be realized before it may be used to offset capital gains. Unrealized gains and losses can be compared to realized gains and losses..



Up volume
- An increase in the bullish volume activity of shares traded in a market or asset. Up volume happens during bullish trends or at the end of bullish reversal. The appearance of increased up volume activity for the day is often accompanied by an increase in asset's prices as well. Up volume is also known as up on volume or up bar volume. Overall, there are many variables that can affect volume and their impacts can vary. Up volume is opposed to down volume.



Upside/downside ratio
- The upside/downside ratio is a market breadth indicator that depicts the relationship between the volume of advancing and declining stocks on a stock exchange. This indicator is commonly used by investors to determine the market's momentum at any particular period. The upside/downside ratio is a variation of the advance-decline ratio (ADR), which analyzes the number, rather than the volume, of stocks that closed higher to the number of stocks that closed lower than their previous day's closing prices. 



Uptrend - An uptrend is the upward price movement of a financial asset, characterized by price making higher highs and higher lows. This means that after a bullish run, the lows following a pullback will still be near or above the highs that were seen earlier in the trend. The uptrend is regarded intact as long as price continues to make higher highs (during the run) and higher lows (during the pullback). Some traders choose to trade solely during uptrends. These type of long-trend traders employ a variety of tactics to capitalize on the price's proclivity to make higher highs and lower lows. They enter trades earlier as price begins the raise; they manage their position(s) during the bullish run by adjusting their stops (in case price suddenly reverses); they exit and take profit (fully or partially) as price loses strength and starts to reverse direction.



Uptick
- An increase in a financial instrument's price since the previous transaction. An uptick, also known as plus tick, happens when the price of a securities rises in proportion to the previous tick or trade.



Uptick volume
- The volume of shares traded when a stock's price rises. It is one of the many indications used by investors to decide whether to buy or sell an asset. Uptick volume is often utilized by traders who use technical analysis—the technique of analyzing charts to observe movements and patterns in stock prices and volumes over time. Uptick volume is used to calculate a stock's net volume (the measure of its momentum) by subtracting the uptick volume from the downtick volume.




Utility sector - Sector investing provides targeted possibilities to invest in the stocks of companies in various sectors of the economy. Electric, gas, and water utilities, as well as businesses that produce or distribute power, are examples of companies in the utilities industry. Even though utilities are for-profit, private companies, they are extensively regulated and a part of the public utility system. Utilities are frequently held as long-term investments and used by investors to produce income through dividends.

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